Vaccines are used to protect you from certain diseases. They help in producing antibodies in your body that keep you away from fatal or terminal illnesses. It boosts your immunity and helps you to stay safe.
The making of these vaccines is really interesting and difficult at the same time. In the wake of COVID-19 when Russia already claims to have invented the most desired vaccine in the world right now, let’s try to educate ourselves about the making of a vaccine.
Making Of A Vaccine
A vaccine can be used following several mechanisms. Most of them try to prevent the virus despite killing them. That is exactly how a vaccine is made. The few techniques used by scientists are as follows:
Vaccines That Weaken The Virus
This technique is used to weaken the virus so that it can’t reproduce easily. The vaccine for Measles, Rubella, Mumps, Rotavirus, Oral Polio, Chickenpox & Influenza is designed using this technique. Reproduction of the virus is the root cause of the disease in most cases, and if you can check it’s reproduction rate, you can as well prevent the disease. Weakened alive viruses provide lifetime immunity, but one should not use these vaccines on people with low immunity.
Deactivate The Virus
In this case, chemicals are used to completely deactivate the virus. Killing the virus resolves the whole matter. Vaccines for Polio, Hepatitis-A, Influenza(shot) & Rabies are made in this way. These vaccines usually need a lot of dosages to work efficiently, but they do not have any chances of causing the disease that they are designed to prevent. Patients with weak immune systems can also be vaccinated using these shots.
Using The Virus Partly
In this technique, a part of the virus is extracted and used as a vaccine. The Hepatitis-B, one shingle vaccine, 7& the Human Papillomavirus vaccines are made with this technology. The vaccines consist of a protein that resides on the surface of the virus. It can also be used on patients with weakened immunity to generate life-long protection only with two dosages.
Using Part Of The Bacteria
Some diseases are caused by a harmful protein that the bacteria produce known as a toxin. Several vaccines are made by deactivating the toxin. Vaccines for a disease like Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis are devised in this manner. Another strategy to make a bacterial vaccine is to use part of the sugar-coating of the bacteria. Protection against infections is based on immunity to this sugar-coating. The vaccines for Haemophilus influenza type-B or pneumococcal & meningococcal vaccines are made this way.
Vaccines are a crucial invention in the medical history of mankind so far. We must be aware of its functionality to know better. It is a significant part of our life, and it does make a huge difference in the course of this planet’s history. Here we have simplified the making of a vaccine and its method for you. We hope that this helps to get a clear idea about how these life-saving devices are produced by our scientists.