Introduction to Indian Constitution
The Indian Constitution is the supreme law of the state. It is the longest written constitution so far and contains all the laws, rights, duties, responsibilities of the citizens of India. It covers the rights & duties of both the citizens & the government of India. Dr. B.R Ambedkar chaired the drafting committee and is known as the chief architect in this case. The constituent assembly was enforced on 26th January 1949 & it came into action on 26th January 1950. Therefore, India celebrates 26th January as Republic Day every year.
Indian Constitution has some unique features
The bulkiest constitution of the world
The Indian constitution is the bulkiest one in the world. It has 395 articles, 22 parts & 12 schedules. As of January 2020, the Indian Constitution has undergone 104 amendments so far. It is a written constitution with all duties & powers of the citizens & government mentioned in it. The election laws also feature in this law book.
Rigid & flexible at the same time
The Indian constitution has struck a fine balance between rigidity & flexibility. In a few cases, amendments can be done with a simple majority in the parliament and others with a 2/3rds majority including not less than half of the state legislatures.
The Indian constitution suggests a parliamentary form of government in which the actual executive powers lay in the hands of the Prime Minister & the council of ministers & not the President. (Article 74)
The Indian Constitution identifies India as a ‘Union Of States’ (Article 1) which means that the Indian Federation is not a product of any agreement between the units and they cannot break away from it.
Fundamental rights & duties
The Indian Constitution provides several fundamental rights to the citizens of India ranging from article 12-35. These laws cannot be taken away or curbed by the state. Rights always come with duties and even in this case we have no exception. It also contains 11 duties enrolled in the article 51A.
Directive Principles of State Policy
The government also has to abide by certain rules and regulations while framing new policies for the country. These rules are known as the Directive Principles of State Policy. These policies are listed in articles 36-51.
The idea of a secular state
In the 42nd amendment of the constitution, India was tagged as ‘a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic’. India was declared a secular state & it rejected all religious bias.
A separate Judiciary
The constitution suggests an independent judiciary in article 76 and it acts as guardian to the government bodies and the citizens. It protects their rights and supervises the functioning of the government.
According to articles 5-11, it allows single citizenship for citizens residing in different parts of the country.
According to article 79, the Indian constitution instructs to form a Bicameral legislature at the center with the Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha. Also read Why Do We Need A Parliament It’s Functions And Responsibilities
The above features make the Indian Constitution unique and detailed. We hope that this gives you a better idea of the constitution.