Indian Constitution And It’s Unique Features

Constitution of India

Introduction to Indian Constitution

The Indian Constitution is the supreme law of the state. It is the longest written constitution so far and contains all the laws, rights, duties, responsibilities of the citizens of India. It covers the rights & duties of both the citizens & the government of India. Dr. B.R Ambedkar chaired the drafting committee and is known as the chief architect in this case. The constituent assembly was enforced on 26th January 1949 & it came into action on 26th January 1950. Therefore, India celebrates 26th January as Republic Day every year.

Indian Constitution

 Indian Constitution has some unique features

  • The bulkiest constitution of the world

The Indian constitution is the bulkiest one in the world. It has 395 articles, 22 parts & 12 schedules. As of January 2020, the Indian Constitution has undergone 104 amendments so far. It is a written constitution with all duties & powers of the citizens & government mentioned in it. The election laws also feature in this law book.

Indian Constitution
  • Rigid & flexible at the same time

The Indian constitution has struck a fine balance between rigidity & flexibility. In a few cases, amendments can be done with a simple majority in the parliament and others with a 2/3rds majority including not less than half of the state legislatures.

  • Parliamentary Government

The Indian constitution suggests a parliamentary form of government in which the actual executive powers lay in the hands of the Prime Minister & the council of ministers & not the President. (Article 74)

  • Federal system

The Indian Constitution identifies India as a ‘Union Of States’ (Article 1) which means that the Indian Federation is not a product of any agreement between the units and they cannot break away from it. 

  • Fundamental rights & duties

The Indian Constitution provides several fundamental rights to the citizens of India ranging from article 12-35. These laws cannot be taken away or curbed by the state. Rights always come with duties and even in this case we have no exception. It also contains 11 duties enrolled in the article 51A.

  • Directive Principles of State Policy

The government also has to abide by certain rules and regulations while framing new policies for the country. These rules are known as the Directive Principles of State Policy. These policies are listed in articles 36-51.

  • The idea of a secular state

In the 42nd amendment of the constitution, India was tagged as ‘a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic’. India was declared a secular state & it rejected all religious bias.

  • A separate Judiciary

The constitution suggests an independent judiciary in article 76 and it acts as guardian to the government bodies and the citizens. It protects their rights and supervises the functioning of the government. 

  • Single citizenship

According to articles 5-11, it allows single citizenship for citizens residing in different parts of the country. 

  • Bicameral legislature

According to article 79, the Indian constitution instructs to form a Bicameral legislature at the center with the Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha. Also read Why Do We Need A Parliament It’s Functions And Responsibilities

Indian Constitution

The above features make the Indian Constitution unique and detailed. We hope that this gives you a better idea of the constitution. 


History Of Indian Prime Ministers Since Independence

India is considered as one of the most influential countries in the world. As the second-fastest GDP in the world, India holds a special place in the world. It is only fair that their history holds water in the overall grand scheme of world history. 

India was ruled by the British Raj for many centuries. It became free on August 15, 1947. From then, many leaders have fallen and many have arisen. This document is an attempt to remember our forefathers.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

Pandit Nehru
  • Date of Birth: 14 November 1889
  • Tenure: 1947-1964
  • Notable Achievements: Division of India based on states, Coexistence of Public and Private sectors, Abolishing of giant landholdings, Establishment of many Educational institutions, Reducing discrimination due to Hindu Marriage Act and Reservations.
  • Died: 27 May 1964
  • Age: 74 Years

Gulzarilal Nanda

Gulzarilal Nanda
  • Date of Birth: 4 July 1898
  • Tenure: 1964(13 days),1966(13 days)[Acting Prime Minister]
  • Notable Achievements: None, because of the short tenure. 
  • Died: 15 January 1998
  • Age: 99 Years

Lal Bahadur Shastri

Lal Bahadur Shastri
  • Date of Birth: 2 October 1904
  • Tenure: 1964-1966 
  • Notable Achievements: Made English as the official language, Promotion of White Revolution, Great leadership in the  Indo-Pakistan War
  • Died: 11 January 1966
  • Age: 61 Years 

Shrimati Indira Gandhi

  • Date of Birth: 19 November 1917
  • Tenure: 1966-1977, 1980-1984
  • Notable Achievements: First Lady Prime Minister of India, Effective foreign policies with other countries, Equal pay for Men and Women, Suppressed the uprising in West Bengal
  • Died: 31 October 1984
  • Age: 67 Years

Shri Morarji Desai

Morarji Desai
  • Date of Birth: 29 February 1896
  • Tenure: 1977-1979
  • Notable Achievements: Peace with China and Pakistan, Decimation of R&AW, Restriction of future Emergency Rule
  • Died: 10 April 1995
  • Age: 98 Years

Shri Charan Singh

  • Date of Birth: 23 December 1902
  • Tenure: 1977-1978, 1979(23 days)
  • Notable Achievements: None, Due to short tenure
  • Died: 28 May 1987
  • Age: 94 years

Shri Rajiv Gandhi

  • Date of Birth: 20 August 1944
  • Tenure: 1984-1989
  • Notable Achievements: Anti-Defection law, Gave support to many industries, Peace with Sri Lanka
  • Died: 21 May 1991
  • Age: 46 Years

Shri Vishwanath Pratap Singh

  • Date of Birth: 25 June 1931
  • Tenure: 1989-1990
  • Notable Achievements: Mandal Commission report, Stonewalled Reliance group
  • Death: 27 November 2008
  • Age: 77 Years

Shri Chandra Shekhar

  • Date of Birth: 1 July 1927
  • Tenure: 1991(7 months)
  • Notable Achievements: None, Due to short Tenure
  • Death: 8 July 2007
  • Age: 80 years

Shri PV Narasimha Rao

  • Date of Birth: 28 June 1921
  • Tenure: 1991-1996
  • Notable Achievements: Liberalization of Indian Economy, Handling of separatist movements and other riots, Reforms to increase foreign investments
  • Death: 23 December 2004
  • Age: 73 Years

Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee

  • Date of Birth: 25 December 1924
  • Tenure: 1996-1997,1999-2004
  • Notable Achievements: Lahore Summit, Kargil War, First Successful Nuclear Test at Pokhran.
  • Death: 16 August 2018
  • Age: 93 Years

Shri HD Deve Gowda

  • Date of Birth: 18 May 1933
  • Tenure: 1996-1997
  • Notable Achievements: None
  • Age: 87 Years

Shri Inder Kumar Gujral

  • Date of Birth: 4 December 1919
  • Tenure: 1997-1998
  • Notable Achievements: Gujral Doctrine(Foreign Policy)
  • Death: 30 November 2012
  • Age: 92 Years

Shri Manmohan Singh

  • Date of Birth: 26 September 1932
  • Tenure: 2004-2014
  • Notable Achievements: Freed India from License Raj, Started National Rural Health Mission(NHRM), Strengthened Anti-terror laws, National Rural Employment Guarantee Act(NREGA), Right to Information Act, Improved relations among different countries.
  • Age: 87 Years

Shri Narendra Modi

  • Date of Birth: 17 September 1950
  • Tenure: 2014- present
  • Notable Achievements: NITI Aayog, Digital India, Ujjwala scheme, Make in India, Demonetization, Goods and Services Tax, Swachh Bharat Mission, Trips to different countries to increase foreign ties
  • Age: 69 Years