How Do Vaccines Work

Vaccine Cover


A vaccine helps to prevent many severe and terminal illnesses. Vaccines help prevent such diseases by developing your immunity. When you have strong immunity, you can easily tackle diseases without getting sick. 

What is Immunity?

Immunity is your body’s capability to resist diseases. If you have a strong immune system, then you will rarely fall sick. A weak immunity makes you more prone to diseases and illnesses. That is why it is necessary to develop a strong immunity for your body. 

You can build strong immunity in many ways. Your lifestyle, food habits, and living conditions have a massive effect on your health. Age is also a major factor that affects your immune system. One needs to follow a disciplined diet and habits to build a healthy body and boost immunity. 

Your immune system might not be able to form the proper antibodies for certain diseases. That is when you need vaccines to resist these diseases. 

Immune Response

How the Immune System tackles Diseases:

So, how do vaccines work? To know that, you should understand how the immune system of your body works. Your body recognizes the foreign body when a disease-causing bacteria or virus invades it. The foreign germ is called an antigen. Your body creates a protein, known as antibodies, to fight the antigen. The antibodies fight with the antigens to prevent you from falling sick. However, if your immune system is weak, then the antibodies do not succeed, and you get diagnosed with the disease. 

While some diseases are common and have treatments, some diseases can be fatal. Sometimes, when you fall ill because of an antigen and recover from it, your body naturally develops the antibodies to resist the same in the future. It can be the case with dengue or chickenpox. However, you cannot take the chance with fatal diseases, and vaccines stand necessary for that. 


How Vaccines Work:

Vaccines work somewhat similarly to your immune system. 

Vaccines introduce a killed or weaker form of the antigen to the body. Your body recognizes it and creates the antibodies to fight it. These antibodies kill the weakened germs and prevent you from falling sick. Antibodies stay on, boosting your immunity and ready to tackle the germ in the future. 

Vaccines help you to build the antibodies and boost your immunity, and you don’t have to fall sick. When it comes to dangerous viruses like polio, you do not want to take a chance. That is why vaccines are necessary to provide a seal of protection against these germs and viruses. 

Vaccines as the Need of the Hour

In the post-COVID world, vaccines stand as a necessity. Various organizations and universities of the world are competing to create a vaccine against the Wuhan virus. Most of the vaccines are still in the process of trials. It might take a few years to finally develop the one that saves the world. Several premium institutions and organizations are showing promising results. The virus is constantly changing its DNA, that is another reason the vaccines are getting delayed.


These Are The Process Involved In Making The Vaccines


Vaccines are used to protect you from certain diseases. They help in producing antibodies in your body that keep you away from fatal or terminal illnesses. It boosts your immunity and helps you to stay safe.

The making of these vaccines is really interesting and difficult at the same time. In the wake of COVID-19 when Russia already claims to have invented the most desired vaccine in the world right now, let’s try to educate ourselves about the making of a vaccine.

Making Of A Vaccine

Credit: Wikimedia

A vaccine can be used following several mechanisms. Most of them try to prevent the virus despite killing them. That is exactly how a vaccine is made. The few techniques used by scientists are as follows:

Vaccines That Weaken The Virus

This technique is used to weaken the virus so that it can’t reproduce easily. The vaccine for Measles, Rubella, Mumps, Rotavirus, Oral Polio, Chickenpox & Influenza is designed using this technique. Reproduction of the virus is the root cause of the disease in most cases, and if you can check it’s reproduction rate, you can as well prevent the disease. Weakened alive viruses provide lifetime immunity, but one should not use these vaccines on people with low immunity.

Deactivate The Virus

In this case, chemicals are used to completely deactivate the virus. Killing the virus resolves the whole matter. Vaccines for Polio, Hepatitis-A, Influenza(shot) & Rabies are made in this way. These vaccines usually need a lot of dosages to work efficiently, but they do not have any chances of causing the disease that they are designed to prevent. Patients with weak immune systems can also be vaccinated using these shots.

Using The Virus Partly


In this technique, a part of the virus is extracted and used as a vaccine. The Hepatitis-B, one shingle vaccine, 7& the Human Papillomavirus vaccines are made with this technology. The vaccines consist of a protein that resides on the surface of the virus. It can also be used on patients with weakened immunity to generate life-long protection only with two dosages.

Using Part Of The Bacteria

Some diseases are caused by a harmful protein that the bacteria produce known as a toxin. Several vaccines are made by deactivating the toxin. Vaccines for a disease like Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis are devised in this manner. Another strategy to make a bacterial vaccine is to use part of the sugar-coating of the bacteria. Protection against infections is based on immunity to this sugar-coating. The vaccines for Haemophilus influenza type-B or pneumococcal & meningococcal vaccines are made this way.


Vaccines are a crucial invention in the medical history of mankind so far. We must be aware of its functionality to know better. It is a significant part of our life, and it does make a huge difference in the course of this planet’s history. Here we have simplified the making of a vaccine and its method for you. We hope that this helps to get a clear idea about how these life-saving devices are produced by our scientists.