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Introduction to Basics of Computer

Introduction to Basics of Computer

The computer is known as the greatest invention of all time. It has made our lives much easier. If you want to be a part of this century then you have to know using a computer. It is a compulsion that you can’t afford to skip. But, before knowing how to use it, you must know the computer well; all its parts, & equipment. The computer is made up of five basic components called Input Unit, Output Unit, Arithmetic Logic Unit, Control Unit, & Memory.

parts of computer
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  • Input Unit:

In a computer, the input unit is used to provide data & control signals to an information processing system. There are many input devices like microphones, keyboards, mouse, scanners, digital cameras, joysticks, or webcams.

input devices
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  • Output unit:

The output unit of a computer is made up of hardware equipment that converts information into a human-readable format. It can be text, graphics, tactile, audio, or video. Some of the output devices are monitors, printers, graphic output devices, plotters, speakers, etc.

output devices
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  • Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU):

A significant part of the CPU performs the bitwise operations on integer binary numbers for the computer to understand. This is a floating-point unit that operates on floating-point numbers. It is the fundamental building block of the CPU along with the Control Unit and Memory.

  • Control Unit:

The control unit of the computer directs the operation of the processor of the computer. It tells the computer’s memory, arithmetic & the logic unit & input, output devices how to respond to the instructions that have been sent to the processor.

  • Memory: 

Memory refers to a device that is used to store data & information for further use on a computer. It refers to a semiconductor memory where data is stored within MOs memory cells. It is also another super important part of the computer.

Types of Computers:

Now we are going to discuss the most commonly found types of computers. There are quite a few types of computers that are designed for various purposes. Here are a few of them

  1. Supercomputer – traditionally used for heavy computation or handling very large databases.
  2. Mainframe– used by large organizations for critical applications & bulk data processing.
  3. Server computer- provides various services like sharing data or resources among multiple clients.
  4. Workstation computer- these are specifically designed to handle professional tasks which are heavy computational or graphical.
  5. Personal computer– these computers are mainly used in homes or for businesses as well for word processing, accounting, desktop publishing, running spreadsheets, or database management applications.
  6. Microcontroller– these are used in automatically designed products such as cars, tools, medical devices, etc.
  7. Smartphone– yes, this has also turned into a computer now and it can do almost everything that a Personal computer can do.
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Conclusion: 

Computers are running the world these days. From mails to video conferences, everything can be done on a computer. It connects you to the rest of the world and helps you lessen your workload. It has become an indispensable part of our lives and this change is worth it. To know more about the evolution of computer do read https://www.eschool.net/wp-admin/post.php?post=2114&action=edit

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Indian Constitution And It’s Unique Features

Constitution of India

Introduction to Indian Constitution

The Indian Constitution is the supreme law of the state. It is the longest written constitution so far and contains all the laws, rights, duties, responsibilities of the citizens of India. It covers the rights & duties of both the citizens & the government of India. Dr. B.R Ambedkar chaired the drafting committee and is known as the chief architect in this case. The constituent assembly was enforced on 26th January 1949 & it came into action on 26th January 1950. Therefore, India celebrates 26th January as Republic Day every year.

Indian Constitution
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 Indian Constitution has some unique features

  • The bulkiest constitution of the world

The Indian constitution is the bulkiest one in the world. It has 395 articles, 22 parts & 12 schedules. As of January 2020, the Indian Constitution has undergone 104 amendments so far. It is a written constitution with all duties & powers of the citizens & government mentioned in it. The election laws also feature in this law book.

Indian Constitution
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  • Rigid & flexible at the same time

The Indian constitution has struck a fine balance between rigidity & flexibility. In a few cases, amendments can be done with a simple majority in the parliament and others with a 2/3rds majority including not less than half of the state legislatures.

  • Parliamentary Government

The Indian constitution suggests a parliamentary form of government in which the actual executive powers lay in the hands of the Prime Minister & the council of ministers & not the President. (Article 74)

  • Federal system

The Indian Constitution identifies India as a ‘Union Of States’ (Article 1) which means that the Indian Federation is not a product of any agreement between the units and they cannot break away from it. 

  • Fundamental rights & duties

The Indian Constitution provides several fundamental rights to the citizens of India ranging from article 12-35. These laws cannot be taken away or curbed by the state. Rights always come with duties and even in this case we have no exception. It also contains 11 duties enrolled in the article 51A.

  • Directive Principles of State Policy

The government also has to abide by certain rules and regulations while framing new policies for the country. These rules are known as the Directive Principles of State Policy. These policies are listed in articles 36-51.

  • The idea of a secular state

In the 42nd amendment of the constitution, India was tagged as ‘a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic’. India was declared a secular state & it rejected all religious bias.

  • A separate Judiciary

The constitution suggests an independent judiciary in article 76 and it acts as guardian to the government bodies and the citizens. It protects their rights and supervises the functioning of the government. 

  • Single citizenship

According to articles 5-11, it allows single citizenship for citizens residing in different parts of the country. 

  • Bicameral legislature

According to article 79, the Indian constitution instructs to form a Bicameral legislature at the center with the Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha. Also read Why Do We Need A Parliament It’s Functions And Responsibilities

Indian Constitution
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The above features make the Indian Constitution unique and detailed. We hope that this gives you a better idea of the constitution. 

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How Do Vaccines Work

Vaccine Cover
Introduction: A vaccine helps to prevent many severe and terminal illnesses. Vaccines help prevent such diseases by developing your immunity. When you have strong immunity,
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